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Category Archives: Antitrust & Competition

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越分享,越经济?共享经济中的垄断问题

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

作者:宁宣凤 吴涵 赵泱地 金杜律师事务所商务合规部

共享经济作为“供给侧”结构性改革背景下的一种新型商业模式,在近几年迅速崛起。共享经济模式目前正广泛应用于交通出行、住宿、餐饮、旅行等各个行业,催生了一批诸如摩拜单车、小猪短租、回家吃饭、丸子地球等创新企业(具体案例请见图一)。不可否认的是,共享经济新型商业模式降低了交易成本、提高了资源… More…/更多

隔耳有“墙”——从美国FCC新规则谈个人信息保护新趋势

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

作者:宁宣凤 吴涵 黎辉辉 王诗笋 金杜律师事务所商务合规部

2016年12月2日,美国联邦通信委员会(Federal Communications Commission,以下简称“FCC”)正式公布“宽带和其它电信服务中用户隐私保护规则”(Protecting the Privacy of Customers of Broadband and Other Telecommunications Services)(以下简称“FCC新规”),以促进宽带接入服务(Broadband Internet Access Service,BIAS)提供商(以下简称“BIAS提供商”)和其他… More…/更多

Are we now in an era of ¥ 1 million fines for personal information violations?

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

By Susan Ning, Hazel Yin, Lingbo Wei, Huihui Li  King & Wood Mallesons’ Commercial & Regulatory group

On 7th November 2016, the PRC’s Cyber Security Law was approved by the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and will enter into force on 1 June 2017. Once promulgated, the Cyber Security Law attracts widespread attention from all sectors of the community and a series of concepts immediately become hot topics, such as the “cyberspace sovereignty”, the “grading protection of cyber security” and the “critical information infrastructure… More…/更多

反垄断法下财产性处罚的新规和突破

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

作者:宁宣凤 彭荷月 高鼎 金杜律师事务所商务合规部

界的广泛期待之中,国家发展和改革委员会于2016年6月17日发布了《关于认定经营者垄断行为违法所得和确定罚款的指南》(征求意见稿)并开始面向社会征求意见。在我国近年来反垄断法执法力度持续加强的背景下,通过指南的形式总结经验、统一标准是大势所趋。

《中华人民共和国反垄断法》(以下简称《反垄断法… More…/更多

新规解读:垄断协议个案豁免制度首次获系统性规范

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

作者:宁宣凤 尹冉冉 刘成 张若寒 黎辉辉 金杜律师事务所商务合规部

2016年5月12日,国家发展和改革委员会(“国家发改委”)在其网站上发布了《关于垄断协议豁免一般性条件和程序的指南》(征求意见稿)(以下简称“征求意见稿”),面向社会公开征求意见。作为国务院反垄断委员会工作计划中六部反垄断指南之一,征求意见稿首次系统性地规范了垄断协议豁免制度,明确… More…/更多

Emphasis on Preparation of Material Evidence for Leniency Applications

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

By Susan Ning  Kate Peng  Xin Wang King & Wood Mallesons’ Commercila & Regulatory Group

In recent years, against the backdrop that China’s antitrust enforcement authorities paid more attentions to regulate horizontal monopoly agreements, there has been an increase in corporate applications for leniency on their own initiative. To encourage and provide undertakings with more guidance, as well as to improve the efficiency of discovering and investigating a monopoly agreement by the enforcement agencies, the Antimonopoly Commission of the State Council delegated th… More…/更多

申请宽大时应重视“重要证据”的准备

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

作者:宁宣凤  彭荷月  王鑫  金杜律师事务所商务合规部

过去的近2、3年中国反垄断执法机构对于横向垄断协议的规制力度逐渐加大,主动申请宽大的企业日益增多。为加强对经营者的鼓励和指导,提高执法机构发现并查处垄断协议行为的效率,国务院反垄断委员会委托国家发展改革委员会价格监督检查与反垄断局(以下简称“发改委”)于2015年中开始起草宽大制度适用指… More…/更多

Companies Engaged in Different Business Could be Competitors under the Anti-Unfair Competition Law

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

By Susan Ning, Kate Peng, Weiqing Qiu, Yun Bi King & Wood Mallesons’ Commercial & Regulatory Group

Along with the public consultation on amendment of the Anti-unfair Competition Law (“AUCL”), some long-time controversial topics of AUCL are awaiting to be clarified through this amendment.  One of them is the necessity of defining the existence of “competition relationship” in AUCL cases.  Related amendments proposed in the draft AUCL are the revisions on original Article 2 (definition of unfair competition), Article 5 (market confusion) and Article 14 (def… More…/更多

将反腐进行到底——新两高“贪污贿赂案件司法解释”

Posted in Antitrust & Competition, Dispute Resolution

作者:杨皓明 陈蔚 金杜律师事务所争议解决部

2016年4月18日,最高人民法院、最高人民检察院联合发布了《最高人民法院、最高人民检察院关于办理贪污贿赂刑事案件适用法律若干问题的解释》(以下简称《解释》),全文共二十条。这是在反腐败大背景下的一个重量级的司法文件,马上将对侦查、起诉和审判工作产生重大影响。通过研读《解释》,结合最高人民法院发言人的… More…/更多

面临反垄断法规制,关联企业间信息交换须谨慎

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

作者:宁宣凤 彭荷月 李雨濛 金杜律师事务所商务合规部

经营者之间的信息交换,我国反垄断法(反垄断法)没有做出明确规制。但是,反垄断法明确禁止了竞争者之间达成垄断协议。[1]“垄断协议”不仅仅包括排除、限制竞争的协议或决定,也包括其他协同行为。[2] 根据国家发改委和国家工商行政总局的相关规定,执法机关将根据各种因素综合判断经营者之间是否存在协… More…/更多

Chinese SOE transactions may unexpectedly trigger an EU merger notification

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

By Liu Cheng, Simon Holmes and Michael Reiss King & Wood Mallesons

Chinese State-owned enterprises (SOEs) acquiring businesses or entering into joint ventures with other parties may unexpectedly trigger an EU merger filing. This was clarified by the European Commission’s decision clearing the UK joint venture between China General Nuclear Power Corporation (CGN) and Électricité de France (EDF), which was published on 26 April 2016. [1]

The important message for Chinese SOEs is as follows: in deciding whether the Commission has jurisdiction to review a transaction and i… More…/更多

中国国有企业境外交易面临更高欧盟合并审查要求

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

作者:刘成  Simon Holmes  Michael Reiss  King & Wood Mall

国有企业在进行境外并购或与其他企业进行合资合作时,可能将面临更高的欧盟委员会(“欧委会”)合并审查要求。欧委会在2016年4月26日发布的中国广核集团有限公司(“中广核”)与法电集团(“法电”)在英国设立合营企业的批准决定[1]中,对相关问题进行了说明。

值得中国国有企业关注的是,欧委会在判断对一项交易是否… More…/更多

Highlights on Antitrust Guidelines for Automotive Industry — Overview and Frequently Asked Questions

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

By Susan Ning, Cheng LiuHazel Yin, Ruohan Zhang King & Wood Mallesons’ Commercial & Regulatory Group

On March 23rd, 2016, after several rounds of internal inquiries, Antitrust Guidelines for Automotive Industry (Draft for Comments) (hereinafter the “Consultation Draft”), drafted by the National Development and Reform Commission (“NDRC”) together with relevant authorities under the authorization by the State Council Anti-Monopoly Commission, was open for public comments. As the first comprehensive industrial antitrust guideline in China, the pub… More…/更多

Highlights on Antitrust Guidelines for Automotive Industry– Clarifying the Enforcement on RPM

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

by Susan Ning, Cheng Liu, Hazel Yin, Yun Bi King & Wood Mallesons’ Commercial & Regulatory Group

In recent years, Chinese authorities have dealt with many antitrust cases for resale price maintenance (“RPM”), and such investigations have spread into various industries, e.g. milk powder, eye glasses, alcohol, automotive industry, etc. Especially in the automotive industry, since 2014, some well-known branded auto suppliers have been fined for restricting their distributors’ resale price. On March 23, 2016, the National Development and Reform Commission (… More…/更多

Highlights on Antitrust Guidelines for Automotive Industry– Vertical Non-price Restrictions Face Potential Challenges

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

By Susan Ning, Cheng Liu, Hazel Yin, Yumeng Li King & Wood Mallesons’ Commercial & Regulatory Group

Summary

Auto suppliers often impose non-price restrictions, such as territorial restrictions and customer restrictions, on their distributors. In previous penalty decisions of Anti-Monopoly Enforcement Authorities (“AMEAs”), non-price restrictions in association with resale price maintenance may be found violating Article 14(1) or (2) of the Anti-Monopoly Law (“AML”). However, AMEAs have yet punished any standalone non-price restriction under Artic… More…/更多

Highlights on Antitrust Guidelines for Automotive Industry — Antitrust Issues in Automotive Aftermarket

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

By Susan Ning, Cheng Liu, Hazel Yin, Lingbo Wei, Shenglan Liu King & Wood Mallesons Commercial & Regulatory Group

On March 23, 2016, China’s National Development and Reform Commission (“NDRC”) published the draft of the State Council Anti-Monopoly Commission’s Antitrust Guidelines for Automotive Industry (the “Consultation Draft”) and invited comments from the public.

There have been quite a few antitrust investigations in China’s automotive industry in recent years. For the automotive aftermarket, auto suppliers in China have long been criticized for i… More…/更多

A Review of MOFCOM’s Merger Control Enforcement in the First Quarter of 2016

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

By Susan Ning, Zhifeng Chai, Weiqing Qiu and Lingbo Wei King & Wood Mallesons’ Commercial & Regulatory Group

In recent years, there is an increasing awareness among companies to notify the concentration of business operators before the closing of transaction to ensure the antitrust compliance. By summarizing and analyzing related merger control data of the first quarter in 2016, we hope the below article could provide an overview of the recent merger control enforcement in China.

According to the notice published on official website of Ministry of Commerce of P.R.C. (… More…/更多

NDRC Invites Comments on Draft Antitrust Guidelines for Automotive Industry

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

By Susan Ning, Cheng Liu, and Hazel Yin King & Wood Mallesons’ Commercial & Regulatory Group

On March 23, China’s National Development and Reform Commission (“NDRC”) published the draft Antitrust Guidelines for the Auto Industry (“Draft Guidelines”), and invited public comments by April 12, 2016. NDRC is entrusted by the State Council Antimonopoly Commission to take the lead in drafting these Draft Guidelines. Before this draft on March 23, it had circulated several versions among a smaller group and received comments from major market players, industry associ… More…/更多

Local Government in China to Enhance Antitrust Enforcement

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

By Susan Ning, Cheng Liu, Weiqing Qiu and Yun Bi King & Wood Mallesons’ Commercial & Regulatory Group

On October 12, 2015, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council issued the Several Opinions on Promoting the Price Mechanism Reform (“Opinions”). The Opinions call for strengthening the market price supervision and the antitrust enforcement, and target to establish a scientific, orderly, and transparent price supervision regime and antitrust enforcement mechanism by 2020.

Following the Opinions by the central government, many pr… More…/更多

China’s State Council to announce integrated IPR antitrust guidelines

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

By Susan Ning, Cheng Liu and Shenglan Liu  King & Wood Mallesons’Commercial & Regulatory Group

China’s top antitrust authority, the Anti-monopoly Commission (“AMC”) of the State Council is to issue the integrated IPR antitrust guidelines. AMC has entrusted three antitrust enforcement agencies, the National Development and Reform Commission (“NDRC”), the State Administration of Industry and Commerce (“SAIC”) and the Ministry of Commerce (“MOFCOM”), and the State Intellectual Property Office (“SIPO”) with the task of drafting antitrus… More…/更多

聚焦发改委2016年反垄断执法重点

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

作者:宁宣凤  柴志峰  宫婷  张天杰  金杜律师事务所商务合规部

日,国家发展和改革委员会价格监督检查与反垄断局(国家发改委价监局)对外公布了2016年在价格监管与反垄断领域的工作重点。相关详细内容披露于3月4日国家发改委价监局发表的“2016年价格监管与反垄断工作要点”[1]一文中。其中,在商品领域,发改委将密切关注药品、医疗器械、汽车和零配件、及工业原… More…/更多

A Snapshot of Developments in NDRC’s Antitrust Enforcement and Legislation from 2011-2015

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

By Susan Ning, Hazel Yin, Yangdi Zhao King & Wood Mallesons’ Commercial & Regulatory Group

The 12th Five-Year-Plan period (2011-2015) has witnessed intense antitrust enforcement efforts by the Chinese antitrust regulators. Recently, the National Development and Reform Commission (“NDRC”), the price-related antitrust regulator in China released a summary report on its achievements during the past five years. In particular, a total of 97 price-related antitrust cases were concluded, and the fines imposed and illegal gains confiscated amount to approximatel… More…/更多

Highlights of the Draft Amendment to China’s Anti-Unfair Competition Law: Abuse of a Comparatively Advantageous Position

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

By Susan Ning, Hazel Yin, Han Wu, Lingbo Wei King & Wood Mallesons’ Commercial & Regulatory Group

Overview

On February 25th 2016, the State Council published the Anti-Unfair Competition Law (Draft Amendment) (the law hereinafter the “AUCL”, the draft amendment hereinafter the “Draft”) for public comments. Certain issues have arisen since the implementation of AUCL in 1993, for example, new types of unfair competitive behaviors have been under-regulated and the penalties do not have enough deterrent effects. Also, since 2008, the enactment of the Antitrust-… More…/更多

第一个针对联合抵制的行政处罚决定:请谨慎对待联合排他性交易

Posted in Antitrust & Competition

作者:宁宣凤 彭荷月 朱莹  金杜律师事务所商务合规部

2015年12月8日,国务院工商行政管理总局在其官网上公布了广东省工商行政管理局对广州番禺动漫游艺行业协会(GAGA)联合抵制行为的调查决定书。该案是第一起关注联合抵制的案件。之前有关联合抵制的调查都还涉及其他垄断协议,而且联合抵制未被认定为需要予以处罚的目标违法行为。

我们在此介绍GAGA调查案件和之前的… More…/更多