“civil litigation”

作者:宁宣凤彭荷月、刘佳、萧达莎

        经过十几年的孕育和酝酿,《反垄断法》于2008年8月1日生效实施。这不但是我国法制建设发展的阶段性成果,更是中国市场经济发展的里程碑事件。《反垄断法》共8章57条,确立了一系列崭新的制度——不但反经济垄断,也反行政垄断;不仅有域内效力,还有域外效力;不但确立了公共实施,也肯定了私人执行。所谓反垄断公共实施(public enforcement),即指国家赋权的反垄断执法机构开展的反垄断行政调查执法活动;所谓反垄断私人执行(private action),那些自身利益受到反竞争行为影响的法人或自然人通过向法院提起民事诉讼来执行《反垄断法》的。在过去五年中,反垄断公共实施和私人执行共同构建和促进了我国《反垄断法》的实施。这两者相辅相承、相互补充,共同承担着《反垄断法》预防和制止垄断行为,保护市场公平竞争,提高经济运行效率,维护消费者利益和社会公共利益的使命。

        《反垄断法》确立的反垄断民事诉讼与专门机构的反垄断行政执法相结合的“双轨制”符合当今世界各国和地区反垄断法实施的普遍做法和明显趋势,也是能够更为全面的在实践中切实落实《反垄断法》。然而,“双轨制”在实践也会存在一些问题,同一反垄断事件既在法院提起民事诉讼,又进行行政审查,难免有需要协调的方面。对于两个程序之间的协调,目前的一些规定虽然有所涉及,但仍有很多问题没有得到解决。本文意在对这些问题作一个梳理,希望能够抛砖引玉,同时也期待题述问题得以在实践中被司法机关和行政机构探索解决。

Continue Reading 《反垄断法》的双轨制——行政执法与民事诉讼的互动

By Susan Ning, Kate Peng, Jia Liu and Rui Li    King & Wood Mallesons’ Antitrust & Competition Group

After more than ten years of deliberation and discussion, Anti-monopoly Law of China (AML) finally came into effect on August 1, 2008. This is not only a periodic achievement in the development of Chinese legal system but also a milestone event since the establishment of Chinese market economy. AML contains eight chapters and fifty-seven articles and sets up a brand new mechanism against economic and administrative monopoly with both domestic and international reaches and private and public enforcement. Public enforcement refers to administrative investigation and enforcement activities initiated by anti-monopoly agencies duly authorized by the nation. Private action refers to anti-monopoly civil action filed at the court by the legal or natural person injured by the anticompetitive conducts. In the past five years, the public and private enforcement have worked in tandem to promote the enforcement of AML. The two enforcement methods complement each other to prevent the anticompetitive conducts violating AML, protect fair market competition, enhance market efficiency, and safeguard consumers’ interest and the public interest.   
Continue Reading The Dual System of Anti-monopoly Law – The Interplay between Administrative Enforcement and Civil Action