There are several designation lists created by U.S. government agencies to prohibit or restrict certain economic or trade activities the U.S. deems to be adverse to U.S national security and foreign policy goals. These lists are created, maintained, and regulated by different U.S. government agencies and impose different requirements on those subject to them. They also impose different levels of enforcement mechanisms, with violations potentially being subject to both criminal and civil liability.
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Continue Reading 美国诉讼资助

US patent law gives a patent owner the right to exclude others from making, using, offering to sell, selling, or importing into the US the patented invention for a limited period of time.  To enforce its rights, a patent owner may bring a patent infringement claim against an alleged infringer in US federal district court or, if the claim involves the importation of allegedly infringing goods, before the US International Trade Commission (ITC).  If a patent is found to be valid, enforceable, and infringed in a district court action, the patent owner is entitled to monetary damages of not less than a reasonable royalty and may be able to obtain an injunction preventing further infringement.  A patent owner who prevails in an ITC action can seek to exclude the importation of infringing articles.
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U.S. litigation can be a long and expensive process involving multiple appeals and extensive discovery. Under the “American rule” on costs, each party typically bears its own costs. Therefore, any defenses that can result in dismissal of an action as early as possible are valuable to defendants, particularly to non-U.S. defendants who face increased costs due to their distance from the forum.
Continue Reading Jurisdiction Over and Service on Non-U.S. Parties in U.S.