2019年和2020年,英国法院先后作出多项涉及英国法下默示善意义务的判决,判决结果似乎都传递了相同的信息:尽管根据公认的法律规定,商业合同中并不存在一般善意义务,但如果善意义务与当事人的推定意图及其合同关系一致,则可以默示存在。
Continue Reading 英国法面面观:英国法下默示善意义务的适用情形

英国法院在去年对于从合同(如信用函通知书)中解读出第三方权利并未采取回避的态度。Chudley诉克莱兹戴尔银行(Clydesdale Bank Plc)一案表明,即使第三方不属于合同当事方,其可能也能够主张合同项下的索赔。该案同时强调了理解以下两点的重要性:(1) 法院在何种情况下将如此判决;以及 (ii) 起草合同时有助于或阻碍第三方索赔的内容要件。
Continue Reading 即使对合同不知情,你也可以享有第三方权利

2019年7月,英国最高法院审理了劳动合同中限制性条款(本案中为竞业禁止条款)的可执行性。限制性条款是通常包含在劳动合同中的具有约束力的条件,目的是为了保护雇主的业务不受雇员行为的影响。鉴于香港法院最近采用了Beckett测试(详见下文),其在未来也极有可能援引本案。
Continue Reading 英国最高法院对限制性条款进行严格的“蓝铅笔测试

In July 2019, the UK Supreme Court considered the enforceability of a restrictive covenant (in this case, a non-compete clause) in an employment contract.  Restrictive covenants are binding conditions typically contained in employment contracts which aim to protect the employer’s business from acts of the employee. As the Hong Kong Courts recently adopted the Beckett Test (see below for further information) this case is highly likely to also be adopted by the Hong Kong Courts in the future.
Continue Reading  The Supreme court sharpens the “Blue Pencil Test” for restrictive covenants

Last year the UK Courts were not afraid to imply rights of third parties into contracts, such as letters of instruction. Chudley v Clydesdale Bank Plc showed possibility of third parties succeeding in making a claim under contracts to which they are not a party and highlights the importance of understanding (i) in which circumstances the Courts will do so; and (ii) which elements of drafting would help or hinder third party claims.
Continue Reading You may have Third Party Rights even if you don’t know a contract exists